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Judicial Decision-Making in a Globalised World

A Comparative Analysis of the Changing Practices of Western Highest Courts

Paperback Engels 2015 9781849469876
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Samenvatting

Why do judges study legal sources that originated outside their own national legal system, and how do they use arguments from these sources in deciding domestic cases? Based on interviews with judges, this book presents the inside story of how judges engage with international and comparative law in the highest courts of the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, France and the Netherlands.

A comparative analysis of the views and experiences of the judges clarifies how the decision-making of these Western courts has developed in light of the internationalisation of law and the increased opportunities for transnational judicial communication. While the qualitative analysis reveals the motives that judges claim for using foreign law and the influence of 'globalist' and 'localist' approaches to judging, the author also finds suggestions of a convergence of practices between the courts that are the subject of this study.

This empirical analysis is complemented by a constitutional-theoretical inquiry into the procedural and substantive factors of legal evolution, which enable or constrain the development and possible convergence of highest courts' practices. The two strands of the analysis are connected in a final contextual reflection on the future development of the role of Western highest courts.

Specificaties

ISBN13:9781849469876
Taal:Engels
Bindwijze:paperback
Aantal pagina's:290
Druk:1
Verschijningsdatum:10-11-2015
Hoofdrubriek:Juridisch
ISSN:

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Inhoudsopgave

Acknowledgments v
Table of Cases xiii

1. Introduction: Highest Courts in Flux 1
I. The Trend of Judicial Internationalisation 2
II. Why Do Judges Cite Foreign Law? 3
III. Learning from the Views of Judges 6
IV. Scope of the Research 8
V. Outline of the Book 10

2. Understanding the Development of Highest Courts’ Practices:
A Constitutional-Theoretical Approach 14
I. Constitutional Theory and Legal Evolution 16
A. Understanding Legal Evolution through Constitutional Theory 16
B. Concept of ‘Constitutional (In-)Flexibility’ 18
II. Procedural Aspects of Legal Evolution 20
A. Detail of Constitutional Norms 20
B. Modalities for Revision of the Constitution 21
C. Approach of the Interpreter of the Constitution 24
D. Impact of International Law in the Domestic Legal System 26
III. Substantive Aspects of Legal Evolution 28
A. Democratic Justification of Judicial Decisions 28
(i) Authority of the Consulted Sources 29
(ii) Nature of the Judicial Competence 31
B. Legal Tradition 32
C. Nature of Cases 34
D. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Judicial Decision-Making 34
IV. Conclusion 35

3. Introducing the Comparative and Empirical Analysis 36
I. Anglo-Saxon Model: A Single Highest Court (United Kingdom, Canada, United States) 36
A. Competences of Review 37
(i) UK Supreme Court 37
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 37
(iii) US Supreme Court 38
B. Composition: Judges and Staff 39
(i) UK Supreme Court 39
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 40
(iii) US Supreme Court 41
C. Caseload 42
(i) UK Supreme Court 42
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 43
(iii) US Supreme Court 44
II. French Model: Multiple Highest Courts (France, the Netherlands) 45
A. Competences of Review 46
(i) Courts of Cassation 46
(ii) Supreme Administrative Courts 47
(iii) Conseil Constitutionnel 49
B. Composition: Judges and Staff 51
(i) Courts of Cassation 51
(ii) Supreme Administrative Courts 52
(iii) Conseil Constitutionnel 54
C. Caseload 55
(i) Courts of Cassation 55
(ii) Supreme Administrative Courts 57
(iii) Conseil Constitutionnel 58
III. Comparing the Courts 59
A. Competences of Review 59
B. Composition 61
C. Caseload 61
IV. An Empirical Analysis 62
A. Interviewed Judges 62
B. The Interviews 64
C. Other Sources: Case Law, Speeches and Articles 66
V. Conclusion 67

4. Incorporating the Transnational: Judicial Roles, Relations and Working Methods in a Globalised World 68
I. Judicial Roles in a Globalised World 69
A. Guardian of the Law 69
(i) Ensuring the Uniform Application of the Law 69
(ii) Ensuring the Protection of Fundamental Rights 76
B. A Developer of the Law 78
(i) Judicial Authority and Autonomy in a Globalised World 78
(ii) Horizontal Dialogue: Leadership amongst One’s Peers 80
(iii) Vertical Dialogue: Leadership vis-à-vis the European Courts 80
C. Conclusion 82
II. International Relations of the Highest Courts 83
A. Judicial Networks and Exchanges 83
(i) UK Supreme Court 84
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 85
(iii) US Supreme Court 88
(iv) French Highest Courts 90
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 95
B. Individual Views Concerning Globalisation 98
(i) Involvement in Debate About Globalisation 99
(ii) Influence of ‘Globalist’ and ‘Localist’
Mind-Sets of Judges 102
(iii) Judicial Politics 106
(iv) Personal Background 107
C. National Judges in International Courts 109
D. Conclusion 112
III. Working Methods in a Globalised World 113
A. Internal Research of International and Comparative Law 114
(i) UK Supreme Court 114
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 115
(iii) US Supreme Court 116
(iv) French Highest Courts 116
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 117
B. Role of Counsel, Amici Curiae and Interveners 120
(i) UK Supreme Court 120
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 121
(iii) US Supreme Court 122
(iv) French Highest Courts 123
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 123
C. Deliberations 124
(i) UK Supreme Court 124
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 125
(iii) US Supreme Court 126
(iv) French Highest Courts 127
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 128
D. Published Judgments 129
(i) UK Supreme Court 129
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 130
(iii) US Supreme Court 131
(iv) French Highest Courts 132
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 135
E. Conclusion 136
IV. Conclusion 137

5. The Use of Foreign Law in Judicial Decision-Making 139
I. Status of Foreign Law 140
A. Impact of International Law 141
(i) UK Supreme Court 141
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 144
(iii) US Supreme Court 145
(iv) French Highest Courts 146
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 148
B. Role of Comparative Law 150
(i) UK Supreme Court 150
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 151
(iii) US Supreme Court 154
(iv) French Highest Courts 158
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 160
C. Conclusion 161
II. Use of Foreign Law: Examples from Case Law 163
A. Use of International Law 163
(i) UK Supreme Court 163
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 166
(iii) US Supreme Court 169
(iv) French Highest Courts 171
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 173
B. Use of Comparative Law 178
(i) UK Supreme Court 178
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 181
(iii) US Supreme Court 187
(iv) French Highest Courts 190
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 194
C. Conclusion 197
III. Justification of Developed Practices 198
A. Judicial Argumentation and the Style of Judgments 198
(i) Citation of Foreign Legal Materials 199
(ii) Why Judges Cite Foreign Law 200
(iii) Methodological Challenges 203
B. Selection of Comparative Legal Materials: Tradition, Language and Prestige 206
(i) UK Supreme Court 206
(ii) Supreme Court of Canada 206
(iii) US Supreme Court 209
(iv) French Highest Courts 211
(v) Dutch Highest Courts 212
C. Conclusion 213
IV. Conclusion 213

6. Conclusion: Assessing the Development of Highest Courts’ Practices 217
I. Constitutional (In-)Flexibility in Action: Procedural and Substantive Explanations for the Development of Highest Courts’ Practices 217
A. Procedural Explanations 218
(i) Accommodating Change Through Constitutional Norms 218
(ii) Accommodating Change Through Constitutional Interpretation 223
B. Substantive Explanations 227
(i) Democratic Justification of Judicial Decisions 227
(ii) Legal Tradition and the Nature of Cases: Contextual Factors for the Use of Foreign Law 230
(iii) Effectiveness and Efficiency of Judicial Decision-Making 232
C. Conclusion 233
II. Epilogue: The Future of Judicial Internationalisation 234
A. Judges’ View of the Future 234
B. Possible Scenarios for the Future 237

Annex: Interview Design 240
Bibliography 243
Index 257

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        Judicial Decision-Making in a Globalised World