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The Presumption of Non-Conformity in European Consumer Sales Law

Gebonden Engels 2015 9789462365575
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Samenvatting

This book analyses the allocation of the burden of proof in consumer sale cases, in particular the application of the presumption of non-conformity designed to simplify the consumer’s duty to supply evidence. It provides detailed information on the notion of non-conformity as found in the Consumer Sales Directive and implemented in Poland, Germany, England and Wales, and the Netherlands and presents a comprehensive analysis of the presumption of non-conformity. The author clarifies whether the presumption of non-conformity constitutes an appropriate tool for simplifying the burden of proof lying with the consumer and whether it provides for a high level of consumer protection necessary for the better functioning of the European Internal Market.

Specificaties

ISBN13:9789462365575
Taal:Engels
Bindwijze:gebonden
Aantal pagina's:354
Druk:1
Verschijningsdatum:4-6-2015
Hoofdrubriek:Juridisch
ISSN:

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Inhoudsopgave

Abbreviations xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research questions 2
1.2 Approach 3
2 Burden of proof 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.1.1 Burden of proof – European perspective 8
2.1.2 Functions of the burden of proof in the civil proceedings 9
2.2 Burden of proof in Polish law 10
2.2.1 Introduction 10
2.2.2 Definitions 10
2.2.2.1 Material aspect 11
2.2.2.2 Procedural aspect 12
2.2.3 Allocation of the burden of proof 14
2.2.3.1 General rule of Article 6 of the Civil Code 14
2.2.3.2 Presumptions 15
2.2.4 Standard of proof 17
2.2.5 Conclusions 17
2.3 Burden of proof in German law 18
2.3.1 Introduction 18
2.3.2 Definitions 19
2.3.2.1 Objektive Beweislast 19
2.3.2.2 Subjektive Beweislast 20
2.3.3 Allocation of the burden of proof 23
2.3.3.1 Normentheorie 23
2.3.3.2 Presumptions 24
2.3.4 Standard of proof 25
2.3.5 Conclusions 26
2.4 Burden of proof in English and Welsh law 27
2.4.1 Introduction 27
2.4.2 Definitions 28
2.4.2.1 Persuasive burden 28
2.4.2.2 Evidential burden 30
2.4.3 Allocation of the burden of proof 31
2.4.3.1 Allocation of the burden of persuasion 32
2.4.3.2 Allocation of the evidential burden 32
2.4.3.3 Presumptions 33
2.4.4 Standard of proof 33
2.4.5 Conclusions 35
2.5 Burden of proof in Dutch law 36
2.5.1 Introduction 36
2.5.2 Definitions 36
2.5.3 Allocation of the burden of proof 40
2.5.3.1 General rule of Article 150 Rv 40
2.5.3.2 Presumptions 41
2.5.4 Standard of proof 43
2.5.5 Conclusions 44
2.6 Conclusions 45
3 Consumer Sales Directive and its national implementations 49
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Information about the Consumer Sales Directive 49
3.2.1 Legislative process 49
3.2.2 Objectives 50
3.2.3 Implementation methods 51
3.3 Consumer sale in Polish law 52
3.3.1 General information 52
3.3.1.1 Method of implementation 53
3.3.1.2 Characterisation of the implementing act 54
3.3.1.3 Systematics of sales law 55
3.3.2 Legislative changes as a result of the implementation of the Consumer
Sales Directive 56
3.3.3 Current issues regarding the law of consumer sale 60
3.3.3.1 Implementation of the Directive on Consumer Rights 61
3.3.3.2 Existence of the case law 61
3.3.3.3 ADR 62
3.3.3.4 Consequences for consumer protection 64
3.3.4 Conclusions 65
3.4 Consumer sale in German law 66
3.4.1 General information 66
3.4.1.1 Method of implementation 67
3.4.1.2 Characterisation of the implementing act 67
3.4.1.3 Systematics of sales law 68
3.4.2 Legislative changes as a result of the implementation of the Consumer
Sales Directive 69
3.4.3 Current issues regarding the law of consumer sale 72
3.4.3.1 Implementation of the Directive on Consumer Rights 72
3.4.3.2 Interpretation of German provisions on consumer sales in conformity
with the Directive 73
3.4.3.3 ADR 77
3.4.4 Conclusions 78
3.5 Consumer sale in English and Welsh law 79
3.5.1 General information 79
3.5.1.1 Method of implementation 81
3.5.1.2 Characterisation of the implementing act 82
3.5.1.3 Systematics of sales law 83
3.5.2 Legislative changes as a result of the implementation of the Consumer
Sales Directive 84
3.5.2.1 Remedies 84
3.5.2.2 Non-conformity 88
3.5.2.3 Limitation and the burden of proof 88
3.5.2.4 Conclusions 89
3.5.3 Current issues regarding the law of consumer sale 89
3.5.3.1 Implementation of the Directive on Consumer Rights 90
3.5.3.2 Substantive law 90
3.5.3.3 Court proceedings 92
3.5.3.4 ADR 92
3.5.4 Conclusions 94
3.6 Consumer sale in Dutch law 95
3.6.1 General information 95
3.6.1.1 Method of implementation 96
3.6.1.2 Characterisation of the implementing act 96
3.6.1.3 Systematics of sales law 98
3.6.2 Legislative changes as a result of the implementation of the Consumer
Sales Directive 99
3.6.3 Current issues regarding the law of consumer sale 101
3.6.3.1 Implementation of the Directive on Consumer Rights 102
3.6.3.2 Preliminary questions for the ECJ: ex officio application of consumer
sales law and specificity of the burden of proof 103
3.6.3.3 ADR (de Geschillencommissie) 107
3.6.4 Conclusions 109
3.7 Conclusions 110
4 Non-conformity 113
4.1 Introduction 113
4.2 Non-conformity in the Consumer Sales Directive 113
4.3 Non-conformity in Polish law 115
4.3.1 Introduction 115
4.3.2 Non-conformity: definitions 116
4.3.2.1 Physical defects of Article 556 (1) of the Civil Code (before implementation
of the Consumer Sales Directive) 116
4.3.2.2 Legal defects of Article 556 (2) of the Civil Code (before implementation
of the Consumer Sales Directive) 117
4.3.2.3 Non-conformity of Article 4 (2) and 4 (3) of the Consumer Sale
Act 119
4.3.2.4 Defects of Article 5561 of the Civil Code (amendments introduced in
2014) 125
4.3.2.5 Conclusions 127
4.3.3 Buyer’s knowledge of the non-conformity 128
4.3.4 Burden of proof of the non-conformity 130
4.3.5 Conclusions 136
4.4 Non-conformity in German law 137
4.4.1 Introduction 137
4.4.2 Defects: definitions 138
4.4.2.1 Material defects 139
4.4.2.2 Incorrect installation 142
4.4.2.3 Legal defects 143
4.4.2.4 Conclusions 143
4.4.3 Buyer’s knowledge of the defects 144
4.4.4 Burden of proof of the defects 145
4.4.5 Conclusions 147
4.5 Non-conformity in English and Welsh law 148
4.5.1 Introduction 148
4.5.2 Non-conformity: definitions 150
4.5.2.1 Satisfactory quality 150
4.5.2.2 Correspondence with the description, sample or model 151
4.5.2.3 Fitness for purpose (ordinary and specific) 154
4.5.2.4 Correspondence with the characteristics based on the public statements 156
4.5.2.5 Incorrect installation 157
4.5.2.6 Legal defects 159
4.5.2.7 Conclusions 160
4.5.3 Buyer’s knowledge of the non-conformity 161
4.5.4 Burden of proof of the non-conformity 162
4.5.5 Conclusions 163
4.6 Non-conformity in Dutch law 165
4.6.1 Introduction 165
4.6.2 Non-conformity: definitions 166
4.6.2.1 Quality 167
4.6.2.2 Identity and quantity 170
4.6.2.3 Incorrect installation 170
4.6.2.4 Legal defects 171
4.6.2.5 Conclusions 172
4.6.3 Buyer’s knowledge of the non-conformity 173
4.6.4 Burden of proof of the non-conformity 174
4.6.5 Conclusions 175
4.7 Conclusions 176
5 Presumption of non-conformity 179
5.1 Introduction 179
5.2 The presumption of Article 5 (3) of the Consumer Sales Directive 180
5.2.1 Introduction 180
5.2.2 General information 180
5.2.3 Conditions for the application of the presumption 183
5.2.3.1 Non-conformity 183
5.2.3.2 Six-month period 183
5.2.4 Construction of Article 5 (3) of the Consumer Sales Directive 184
5.2.5 Conclusions 188
5.3 Presumption of non-conformity in Polish law 188
5.3.1 Introduction 188
5.3.2 Scope of the application of the presumption 189
5.3.3 Conditions for the application of the presumption 191
5.3.3.1 Non-conformity 191
5.3.3.2 Six-month period 196
5.3.3.3 Conclusions 202
5.3.4 Rebuttal of the presumption 204
5.3.5 Exclusion of the application of the presumption 205
5.3.6 Road map of the presumption 208
5.3.7 Conclusions 210
5.4 Presumption of non-conformity in German law 211
5.4.1 Introduction 211
5.4.2 Scope of the application of the presumption 212
5.4.3 Conditions for the application of the presumption 215
5.4.3.1 Non-conformity (Sachliche Komponente) 215
5.4.3.2 Six-month period (Zeitliche Komponente) 222
5.4.3.3 Conclusions 227
5.4.4 Rebuttal of the presumption 228
5.4.5 Exclusion of the application of the presumption 230
5.4.5.1 Incompatibility with the nature of the goods 231
5.4.5.2 Incompatibility with the nature of the defects 235
5.4.5.3 Conclusions 239
5.4.6 Road map of the presumption 240
5.4.7 Conclusions 242
5.5 Presumption of non-conformity in English and Welsh law 244
5.5.1 Introduction 244
5.5.2 Scope of the application of the presumption 245
5.5.3 Conditions for the application of the presumption 249
5.5.3.1 Non-conformity 249
5.5.3.2 Six-month period 250
5.5.3.3 Conclusions 252
5.5.4 Rebuttal of the presumption 253
5.5.5 Exclusion of the application of the presumption 254
5.5.6 Road map of the presumption 255
5.5.7 Conclusions 256
5.6 Presumption of non-conformity in Dutch law 257
5.6.1 Introduction 257
5.6.2 Scope of the application of the presumption 257
5.6.3 Conditions for the application of the presumption 260
5.6.3.1 Non-conformity 261
5.6.3.2 Six-month period 265
5.6.3.3 Conclusions 267
5.6.4 Rebuttal of the presumption 268
5.6.5 Exclusion of the application of the presumption 271
5.6.5.1 Incompatibility with the nature of the goods 273
5.6.5.2 Incompatibility with the nature of the non-conformity 276
5.6.5.3 Conclusions 281
5.6.6 Road map of the presumption 282
5.6.7 Conclusions 284
5.7 Conclusions 285
6 Comparative conclusions 289
6.1 Aims and objectives of the presumption of Article 5 (3) of the Consumer
Sales Directive 289
6.2 Conditions for the application of the presumption 291
6.2.1 Non-conformity 291
6.2.1.1 Poland 292
6.2.1.2 Germany 293
6.2.1.3 England and Wales 294
6.2.1.4 The Netherlands 295
6.2.1.5 Comparative remarks 296
6.2.2 Six-month period 297
6.2.2.1 Poland 297
6.2.2.2 Germany 298
6.2.2.3 England and Wales 299
6.2.2.4 The Netherlands 299
6.2.2.5 Comparative remarks 300
6.3 Rebuttal 301
6.3.1 Poland 301
6.3.2 Germany 302
6.3.3 England and Wales 302
6.3.4 The Netherlands 302
6.3.5 Comparative remarks 303
6.4 Exclusion 304
6.4.1 Poland 304
6.4.2 Germany 305
6.4.2.1 Incompatibility with the nature of the goods 305
6.4.2.2 Incompatibility with the nature of the defects 306
6.4.2.3 Relationship between rebuttal and exclusion of the presumption 307
6.4.3 England and Wales 308
6.4.4 The Netherlands 309
6.4.4.1 Incompatibility with the nature of the goods 310
6.4.4.2 Incompatibility with the nature of the non-conformity 310
6.4.4.3 Relationship between rebuttal and exclusion of the presumption 312
6.4.5 Comparative remarks 312
6.5 Final remarks 313
Literature 315
Legislation 343
Table of Cases 351
Index 359

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        The Presumption of Non-Conformity in European Consumer Sales Law